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The Mexican Constitution Day

The Mexican Constitution Day

The birthday of constitution received a great response among Mexicans. They celebrate this day every year on February 5 and call it the Mexican Constitution Day (El Día de la Constitución Mexicana).

Constitution is the most important law of every nation, is a legal document which establishes the rights and obligations of both ordinary citizens and those who govern them.

In Mexico, there were three basic laws. The Constitution of 1824 established a federal system, using the federal system of the United States as a model. The Constitution of 1857 provided many political and civil rights. The current constitution, which was proclaimed on February 5, 1917 (Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos de 1917), has maintained a liberal democratic character, but also contained revolutionary clauses – the economic, the social and the cultural rights of the population.

The Constitution was developed by representatives of the national bourgeoisie soon after an armed peasant movement was brutally suppressed. But, as a product of the Revolution of 1910-1917, it reflected, albeit in modified form, a number of requirements of the masses. The Constitution of Mexico at the time of its adoption was the most radical of all existing constitutional documents in the world of that time.

The articles of the Constitution devoted to the basic principles of the state were the most innovative. The central place was occupied by art. 27, which provided that "the initial ownership of the land and water belongs to the State, which had and still has the right to transfer them to private individuals, thereby creating the private property".

The Constitution reflected the desire of the Mexican national bourgeoisie to restore the state control over national resources which were pillaged by foreigners. All minerals, as well as the territorial waters were declared as a "unconditional and inalienable" property of the state. The federal government could cede the development of these resources (except oil and some other minerals) in the form of concessions to private individuals or companies "in accordance with the terms and conditions prescribed by laws" of Mexico.

It was stipulated that only Mexicans and Mexican companies had the right to acquire ownership of land and water, to obtain concessions for mines, for extraction of mineral fuels, etc. The state could provide the same right to the foreigners in a case, if they declared to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs their consent to be considered as Mexicans in respect of the property. Thus, the "legal" argument, repeatedly used by the U.S. ruling circles to justify the armed interventions in Latin American republics under the pretext of "protecting the lives and property of American citizens" became untenable.

The Mexican Constitution served as a model for other Latin American Constitutions, that included more or less in their texts such its clauses as a program of land reform, labor legislation, family law.

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